Guest Post: Dr. Price-Mitchell on Youth Programs

Thanks to Dr. Marilyn Price-Mitchell, a developmental psychologist who focuses on youth empowerment and citizenship, who has agreed to republish the following blog post for YVC. While her original post focuses on how to evaluate the quality of summer programs, these three standards are relevant for any youth program, whether it takes place in the summer, on weekends or after school.

We were very excited to learn that Dr. Price-Mitchell’s work confirms what experience has shown us over the years, that youth-led group based programming can have the most meaningful impact on youth.  Following is Dr. Price-Mitchell’s original post followed by resources to learn more from her studies:

3 Ways to Evaluate Summer Programs for Teenagers

Summer programs can be transformative for youth, helping them to develop leadership skills, acquire greater knowledge of themselves, and foster friendships with peers.

Finding meaningful summer programs for teenagers can be challenging.  There are many choices, including sports, camps, arts programs, and volunteering. Helping find the perfect fit is an important role for parents, grandparents, teachers, and others.  Offering advice can make a difference – pointing teens to activities that are fun, and also offer opportunities to develop character strengths, skills, and abilities that will last a lifetime.

As children grow to middle and high school age, they seek more autonomy and independence.  They naturally react against authority and the kinds of structure found in programs for younger children. Research studies that have evaluated summer programs for teenagers consistently highlight three things that attract teens and keep them engaged over time, each outlined below. Not surprisingly, these program qualities also benefit teens developmentally.

When young people have opportunities for leadership, understanding, and friendship, it can help them navigate adolescence in ways that advance their skills and feel good about themselves.  Summer programs for teenagers help prepare older adolescents for a variety of roles they assume as they reach college-age and the workforce.  When helping middle and high school students evaluate summer programs, ask the three following questions:

Are there Opportunities for Leadership?

One of the most important aspects of summer programs for older youth is whether they offer young people the opportunity to learn leadership skills.  In particular, research suggests that adolescents should be provided with meaningful ways to assist in leading activities, contribute to program decision-making, and play an active role in making the program a success.  When this occurs, young people learn to overcome challenges in the real world, like how to communicate and collaborate with others outside of their families and close circle of friends.

Victor, age 19, participated in numerous summer programs for youth and volunteer activities during high school, including working in a hospital emergency room, at a petting zoo, and tutoring children. He also took advantage of Kiwanis programs and became a Key Club leader.  Reflecting on these experiences, he said: “I believe that having the opportunities to both serve and lead at many levels had a strong shaping effect on who I am as a leader and a person today.”

Are there Opportunities for Understanding?

Teenagers need to be understood and appreciated for who they are, not just for their grades or how well they do in sports and other activities.  Research shows that older youth respond best to programs that are guided by an intentional process of mutual learning and respect. That is, they like structure that encourages interaction between them and program staff where staff take the time to get to know them in depth, learn about their interests, and appreciate them as individuals. These nurturing relationships help young people believe in themselves and foster the development of identity.

Scott, age 20 reinforces the importance of having adults who understand youth. Speaking of a program he started in middle school, he said, “They met me at my level.” Although he was shy, program staff helped him “stretch my rubber band a little bit,” encouraging him to stretch his boundaries and learn about himself.  He remains forever grateful for people who took the time to get to know him.

Are there Opportunities for Friendships?

Older youth are motivated to participate in programs that provide opportunities to develop peer relationships and friendships. And developing these relationships is important to their self-esteem and self-worth. Finding programs that have been referred by friends or where friends are already involved can be a good way to evaluate the quality of the program.  It can also help your teen stretch his or her comfort zone to try something new.

Young people often talk about the importance of working side by side with friends.  Bryon, age 18, who participated in JROTC during high school, talked about a friend who influenced him to try new activities.  “And when he became the Key Club president, I worked a lot with him and we did a lot of joint projects together. We did more projects because of how much we liked working together.”

This blog post was originally published here on May 30, 2011.

Find more information about Dr. Price-Mitchell and her work at  Her recent study “Civic Learning at the Edge: Transformative Stories of Highly Engaged Youth” offers insight into how youth become engaged in community service or other meaningful activities. Check out her blog Roots of Action or follow her on Twitter at @DrPriceMitchell for more information on her work.


Arbreton, A., Bradshaw, M., Sheldon, J., & Pepper, S. (2009). Making every day count: Boys & Girls Clubs’ role in promoting positive outcomes for teens. Philadel­phia: Public/Private Ventures.

Deschenes, S. N., Arbreton, A., Little, P. M., Herrera, C., Grossman, J. B., & Weiss, H. B., with Lee, D. (2010). Engaging older youth: Program and city-level strategies to support sustained participation in out-of-school time. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project.

Price-Mitchell, M. (2010). Civic learning at the edge: Transformative stories of highly engaged youth. Doctoral Dissertation, Fielding Graduate University, Santa Barbara, CA.

Russell, C. A., Mielke, M. B., & Reisner, E. R. (2009). Evidence of program quality and youth outcomes in the DYCD Out-of-School Time Initiative: Report on the initiative’s first three years. Washington, DC: Policy Studies Associates.